獨立焦點 Indie Focus

烈火烏克蘭:沙基羅斯尼薩
Ukraine on Fire: Sergei Loznitsa

我快樂你大穫 My Joy 佔領廣場 Maidan 蘇維埃大事件 The Event 瘋狂的邊境 Donbass

很多香港觀眾對烏克蘭電影的認知,大概是因為反送中示威而看了《凜冬烈火:烏克蘭自由之戰》(2015)。因為抗爭而認識到外國的抗爭紀錄片,但是值得一看的烏克蘭電影又何止一套?說到烏克蘭的政治電影,沙基羅斯尼薩絕對是當中的重要人物。

同樣是拍關於「烏克蘭革命」,羅斯尼薩的《佔領廣場》(2014)手法卻與《凜冬烈火》截然不同,運用大量定位鏡頭,以簡約的手法捕捉抗爭的高峰與低潮,強烈的現代風格使它在同類電影中鶴立雞群。

羅斯尼薩毅然捨棄工程師的職業(及兼職日語翻譯)後,轉往俄羅斯攻讀電影時已經開始拍攝紀錄片。到了2001年,這名烏克蘭導演為了爭取更多的機會拍電影,於是移居德國。拍了二十套紀錄片的他,因為首部劇情長片《我快樂你大鑊》(2010),成為第一部烏克蘭電影被選入康城影展主競賽,而使他聲名大噪。接着的《霧裏人鬼神》(2012)及《佔領廣場》奠定他是康城常客的地位。

國際影壇的認同,沒有減弱羅斯尼薩的創新精神。2015年的《蘇維埃大事件》,把八位攝影師在1991年拍攝的街頭片段,剪輯成一部重塑當年民眾抗爭景象的紀錄片。近作《瘋狂的邊境》(2018)則糅合了他拍攝紀錄片及劇情片的技巧,創作出當下烏克蘭邊境的荒誕實況。這位導演的電影生涯,見證烏克蘭政局多年來的起伏。革命尚未成功,還要捱過多少個寒冬?

Due to Hong Kong’s 2019 protests, many Hong Kong viewers’ only knowledge of Ukrainian cinema is most likely the documentary Winter on Fire: Ukraine's Fight for Freedom (2015). But why stop at one film when Ukrainian cinema has so much more to offer? And there is no better starting point than the works of Sergei Loznitsa.

Like Winter on Fire, Loznitsa’s Maidan (2014) is also a documentary about the Euromaidan movement. Yet its approach is hugely different, namely its use of mostly fixed master shots to capture the highs and lows of the protests. Its strong and modern style has set itself apart from a field of protest-related documentaries in recent years.

Since he left his life as an engineer (and part-time Japanese translator), Loznitsa has been an avid documentary filmmaker since his days studying film in Russia. In 2001, he moved to Germany for better prospects in finding funding to make films. Even though he has made 20 documentaries, Loznitsa became an internationally renowned filmmaker with his fictional feature debut, My Joy (2010), with a slot in the main competition at Cannes Film Festival. His subsequent films, such as In the Fog (2012) and Maidan, have made him a regular at the French Riviera.

Recognition from the international film community has not tempered Loznitsa’s innovative spirit. In 2015, he released The Event, which was edited from footage shot by eight cinematographers during a failed Soviet coup in 1991. His recent film Donbass (2018) combines his talent in both documentary and fictional filmmaking for an absurdist vision of life near the Ukrainian-Russian border. His career has unwittingly become a witness to Ukraine’s political upheaval, showing his audience that true revolution does not end happily ever after at the end of one film.