以愛欲執迷書寫自我/電影



文:游靜/翻譯:羅恩賜


「當你要人家看一部電影,你拿走了人家九十分鐘的生命。(為觀眾)造成如此龐大的改變,這是我的電影非常關注的。我認為我的電影在處理時間的手法上有一種暴力,一種非常含蓄的暴力。但不是會向外爆炸的那種,而是內爆的。當我把一個鏡頭推到一個境地,長得幾乎不能忍受,然後我再給你另一個鏡頭,讓你可再呼吸。這是對觀者身體的一種暴力,因為它要變成一種肉體的經驗。」1

第一次看《主婦日誌》差不多是廿年前的事,在香港藝術中心的地庫電影院。她洗身刷浴缸燒水做飯做飯做飯,為什麼看起來如此熟悉? 後來在紐約上B. Ruby Rich的「女性主義電影」課,看到艾格曼的《我你他她》。Rich回憶她策劃芝加哥同志影展時,艾格曼如何拒絕把此片定位為「女同片」或「女性主義電影」,那時她的年輕不足以理解創作人抗拒被局限於某一種性/別身分的多重意義。有一次接受BBC訪問時,艾格曼提到「如果有人問我是否女性主義導演,我會答我是女性而我拍片」。 她似乎在反問,她的電影正在思考她作為女性而她拍片,及兩者之間的關係這事情,便被認為是「女性主義電影」了,那說明我們生活在一個怎麼樣的社會呢?

企圖親近與了解艾格曼的電影不得已是一種觀眾自我觀照與書寫的過程,也必須是理解自我身分構築與脈絡的經驗。因為她的所有電影最連貫及中心的母題正是鍥而不捨的自我觀照書寫,與反思自我之構成。從《毀掉我城》(1968)的「我的」("ma")與《我你他她》的「我」("Je"),艾格曼自編自導自演,是導演自我對社會構成的反抗(《毀掉我城》),及尋索脫離了這摧毀性的、破壞自我故必須被自我破壞的環境後,如何走出一種自我能夠掌握、操演下去的路。《毀掉我城》中只有「我」,十八歲的艾格曼在狹隘的廚房空間中做飯、刷地板、吃飯、用膠布把門封着、在爐灶上睡著,最後她的凝視與聲帶上的爆炸聲把「我」與這小空間永恒膠在一塊,也把「我」與這「家鄉」等同――毀掉家鄉原來就是毀掉「我」。「我」與「家」在艾格曼的第一部電影中是相互更換的能指,「家」顯然是自我無法丟棄與遠離的部分,但又必須被主觀上毀掉才能成就自我各種尋找未來的旅程。

《我冷我餓》中的旅程,跟《我你他她》、《安娜的旅程》、《家鄉的消息》中的旅程一脈相承:離開了叫人透不過氣、無法舒展自我的環境,來到陌生的都會,企圖發展自我的樂趣(兩女孩互相問:我們喜歡做什麼呢?於是二人唱起歌來),但很快又發現,這興趣並不能換飯吃,如果可以換,為她們買飯的人也 別有用心。當男人爬在女孩的身上,另一名女孩趕忙爬起來再做飯吃。家務,一如德爾曼的做飯燒水刷鞋子,一如《毀》片中艾格曼刷鞋子刷到自己的腿都黑了,是一種對求生的無奈療傷的方式。
性,是艾格曼書寫自我的旅程中一個章節,或套用珍妮迪勞曼的話:「一個細節而已」(merely a detail),重要的是如何讓自我協商出一種新的自由,繼續旅程的開放及可能。《我你他她》中的「我」替公路上招來的男子打完手槍後,她闖入了一個超越過去自身限制(包括在第一段中呈現的物質匱乏與感情上的封閉)的空間,經歷了貨車司機經歷的世界——「他」與「他」的酒吧,從而到達「她」的空間。敘事上,「他」被呈現成「我」與「她」之間的一個媒體,一種在發掘自身感情/愛情空間前(必須)嘗試、感受的肉體經驗。艾格曼曾經指出她的首部長片《我你他她》裏三段各自要處理的是:「主體的時間」、「他者的時間」與「關係的時間」。 與男子的性互動中,鏡頭的重點不在艾格曼的反應或動作上,而完全集中在男子的上半身反應上,使這性行為成了男子個人的肉體經驗,觀眾(跟艾格曼一起)透過凝視男子這感官反應,觀察與了解身體的需要、欲望之必須滿足及其無法滿足。經歷了這種對身體的包容與明白,到第三段,才有可能與人建立一種「留下來」的關係。同時,透過與異性戀的性來想像與體驗(身體的經驗)自我與同性的可能關係,及了解自身對同性的慾望與感情。異性戀體制無處不在,主宰我們的慾望結構;透過經驗它,自我更領會慾望的本能與限制。

《我你他她》中第三段「我」與女子長長的床戲,經常被女性主義學者指為顛覆了以異性戀觀點出發的性愛呈現。異性戀A片集中再現女性身體局部,尤其是乳房與下體的特寫,再配以誇張的呻吟聲。《我你他她》中的床戲不單特寫欠奉,只有三個長鏡頭呈現兩女子的抱擁纏綿,在色差、明暗、聲音的控制上也極求低限,使觀眾難以辨識誰的身體是誰又哪裏是床哪裏是身體,也難以辨識誰的聲音是誰,彷彿都只有床上的摩擦聲。鏡頭的長度迫使電影的時間(reel time)貼近現實的時間(real time)、主體與鏡頭的固定距離、低限的美學與非感官主導的構圖,皆顛覆一般異性戀色情的想像與再現,及觀眾消費主流性再現的慣性偷窺位置。從挑戰自我、他者到關係的尋索,身分是一個流動不止的符號,根據不同的脈絡與具體經驗被更新、建構與重組。艾格曼書寫中的自我是一個不斷流動、過程中持續調整的旅程,不會停留在某一種身分政治的框架內,又同時時刻反思著每一個社會身分的既定脈絡。

節錄自: 游靜,《我冷我餓,愛欲執迷——桑堤艾格曼自我書寫之可能與不能》,《電影欣賞》 第24卷第1期(總號第125期),2005年10-12月號,台灣:國家電影資料館,頁74-78。

Chantal Akerman 在European Graduate School與公眾對談時的話。"On Absence and Imagination in Documentary Film: An open discussion with Chantal Akerman", 01年6月。"When you give someone a movie to look at, you take away ninety minutes of his life. It's an enormous difference, and that's what something I'm very preoccupied with in my movies. I think that my movies have a kind of violence in the way I use the time, a very subtle violence, and instead of being a violence of explosion, it's a violence of implosion. It's a violent act when I push a shot as far as I can until it is just unbearable, and then I give another shot and you breathe again. It's a violence done to the body of the viewer, because it's becoming a physical experience." http://mikehoolboom.com/?p=71
http://www.bbc.co.uk/films/2001/04/26/chantal_ackerman_the_captive_interview.shtml




A self-narrative through obsession with love and desire


By Yau Ching / Translated by: Lo Yan Chi


"When you give someone a movie to look at, you take away ninety minutes of his or her life. It's an enormous difference, and that's what something I'm very preoccupied with in my movies. I think that my movies have a kind of violence in the way I use the time, a very subtle violence, and instead of being a violence of explosion, it's a violence of implosion. It's a violent act when I push a shot as far as I can until it is just unbearable, and then I give another shot and you breathe again. It's a violence done to the body of the viewer, because it's becoming a physical experience." 1

It was almost twenty years ago when I first watched "JEANNE DIELMAN, 23 quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles" in the cinema of Hong Kong Arts Centre. In the film, Jeanne showered her body, scrubbed the bathroom, boiled the water and cooked a meal. I asked myself why did everything look so familiar to me? Then, I watched Chantal Akerman's "Je Tu Il Elle" on a Feminist film class given by B. Ruby Rich. Rich recalled when she was planning the Chicago LGBT International Film Festival, Akerman denied to categorize her films as "Lesbian film" or "Feminist film". At that time, Rich was too young to understand the multiple meanings of the refusal of the director to be categorized to a certain identity of sexuality. There was another time Akerman mentioned in a BBC interview, "if someone asked me if I am a feminist director, I would answer I am a woman and I make film." It appears as she was asking a rhetorical question: her film discussed the role of herself who make film as a woman and the relationship between making a film and being a woman. If she was considered as a feminist director just because her films discussed these ideas, then what did it tell us about the society we were living in?

Any attempt to approach and understand Akerman's films will unavoidably turn out to become a process of self-reflection and self-narrative and it will also become an experience of understanding the construction and the context of one's identity. It is because the central theme in all her films has always been a persistent self-reflection and self-narrative and reflection on the construction of oneself.

From the "My" (French: "ma") in "Saute ma ville" (Blow up my town, 1968) to the "I" (Frech: "Je") in "Je Tu Il Elle" (I You He She), which were both directed, scripted and acted by Akerman herself, Akerman confronted the society's construction (Saute ma ville) and explored a controllable and manageable path after escaping from the environment which was so destructive and would destroy oneself thus needed to be destroyed by oneself. In "Saute ma ville", there was only "ma", the eighteen-year-old Akerman who cooked meals, scrubbed floor, had meals, sealed the door and slept on top of the stove inside a narrow kitchen. And, finally, her gaze and the explosive sound sticked "ma" and this little space together forever and also equalized "ma" and "ville" – Blowing up my town turned out to be blowing up "me". The idea of "me" and "my town" in Akerman's first film is interchangeable. "My town" apparently is a part of oneself, which cannot be abandoned and distanced, but it also needs to be destroyed subjectively to accommodate "me" to find journeys for the future.

The journey in "J'ai faim, j'ai froid" (I'm Hungry, I'm Cold), "Je Tu Il Elle "(I You He She), "Les Rendez-vous d'Anna" (The Meetings of Anna) and "News from Home" are all parts of a long line: after escaping the suffocating and constraining environment, the characters came to the big metropolis to develop their own interests. (The two girls asked each other what they wanted to do. Then, they sang altogether) Soon they realized that they could not make a living by singing. Even if it could, people who gave them money also had a hidden agenda: when one girl was sleeping with a man, the other girl had to prepare meals. Housework, just like the way Dielman cooking, boiling water and washing shoes and Akerman scrubbing her shoes too hard that blackened her leg, is a way of healing from the helplessness they felt in trying to survive.

Sex is just a chapter of the story where Akerman narrates herself or, to quote from Jeanne Dielman, it is "merely a detail." What is more important in these stories is to negotiate with oneself to find a new path to freedom and other possibilities in life. After "Je" in "Je Tu Il Elle" (I You He She) finished a hand job for a man she met on the road, she came to a world where she could break free from her own limitations in the past (including the first chapter where she suffered from physical and emotional deprivation.) and, in this space, she experienced the world from the perspective of the truck driver-through "his" and "his" bar, she reached "her" space. From the narrative point of view, "he" was represented as a medium between "me" and "she"; and, it is a necessary physical experience for someone who wants to explore his/her own affection or love. Akerman once pointed out that her first feature film "Je Tu Il Elle" (I You He She) was divided into three sections to deal with: "Time of subjectivity", "Time of Other" and "Time of relationship". When filming the sexual interactions between Akerman and the man, the camera focused not on the reaction or action of Akerman, but on the reaction of the man, mainly his upper body. By doing so, it turns the sex experience into the personal physical experience of the man. And, through the gaze at the reaction of the man, audiences (together with Akerman) can observe and understand the need and the desire, both the must-be-satisfied part and the unsatisfiable part of a body. Only after this experience of understanding the need of a body, the character can finally have a chance to develop a "lasting" relationship with other people. At the same time, through the heterosexual sex experience in the film, it is possible to imagine and experience the relationship, desires and emotions towards homosexual that lie within our mind. The institution of heterosexual is everywhere in our world and it defines the structure of our desire. Only by experiencing this institution, we can understand the natural instinct and limitations of our desire.

The sex scene between "I" (french: je ) and the woman in "Je Tu Il Elle" (I You He She) is deemed by some feminist scholars as having overturned the traditional way where sex is often represented standing at the heterosexual perspective. In a typical heterosexual pornography, the focus is always on specific parts of women bodies, particularly on breast and the private part, along with exaggerated cries of pleasure. However, in "Je Tu Il Elle", there was very little close-up shots regarding the sex scenes, but only three long takes.

The use of contrast, brightness and volume were all minimized, making all the actions and sounds almost indistinguishable. Every sound seems to be the frictions from the bed. Also, the duration of the shot is so long that it makes reel time corresponds to the real time. The distance between the subject and the camera, the minimalist aesthetics and the non-sensory-oriented composition; all these features overturned the typical heterosexual imagination of sex. From challenging oneself and other to exploring relationships, identity is an ever-changing symbol. It is renewed, constructed and reconstructed by different contexts and experiences. Akerman's self-narrative is a constant flowing journey that will adjust itself in the process. It never stops at any framework of the politics of identity and constantly reflects the set context of every identity in society.

Extracted from: YAU Ching, "I am Cold, I am Hungry, obsession with love and desire
–––Chantal Akerman possibilty and impossibility of self-narrative", Film Appreciation Academic Section chapter 24, number 1, Oct-Dec, 2005, Taiwan:Film Institute, P74-78。


1 Joyce M. Youmans, "Akerman, Chantal" http://www.glbtqarchive.com/arts/akerman_c_A.pdf

導演簡介


桑堤艾格曼 (Chantal Akerman)1950年出生於比利時的一個波蘭猶太移民家庭,她的家庭背景對她的電影創作生涯產生重大影響。

在她的電影作品中,反覆出現著以家庭或猶太人大屠殺為本的主題。她的作品另一個的特色就是以靜態的長鏡頭細緻地描述情感與性。

她完成多於五十部的電影作品,當中最著名的作品 "Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles" 於1975完成,這部電影令她於先鋒及女權主義電影界中取得重要地位。

近年來她的作品受到各界人士的熱烈好評,例如美國導演Gus Van Sant及 影評人J. Hoberman。2013至2015年期間,倫敦當代藝術學院為她整套的電影作品舉辦回顧展,放映會經常座無虛席。

她最後的作品 "No Home Movie" 於2015年在紐約電影節首演。桑堤艾格曼於2015年10月5日去世,享年六十五歲。


Director Biography


Born in Brussels in 1950 to a family of Polish-Jewish immigrants, Chantal Akerman never really shook off the influence of her roots.

In film after film she would return obsessively to this, either in terms of her own family history or the wider nature of Jewish life in the post-Holocaust era. Another central aspect of her work is the meticulous focus on perception and sexuality, often transmitted in long, silent takes from a static camera.

With a filmography totalling almost 50 titles, she is no doubt best known for her pioneering release of 1975, "Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles", which earned her a central place in the worlds of both avant-garde and feminist cinema.

In recent years her work has been championed by such fervent admirers as director Gus Van Sant and critic J. Hoberman. From 2013 to 2015, London's Institute of Contemporary Arts held a complete retrospective of her films, with screenings often playing to packed houses.

Her final release "No Home Movie" was premiered at the 2015 New York Film Festival. Chantal Akerman passed away on 5 October 2015 at the age of 65.

Filmography

1968 Saute ma ville
1971 L'enfant aimé ou Je joue à être une femme mariée
1972 Hotel Monterey
1972 La Chambre 1
1973 Le 15/8
1973 Hanging Out Yonkers
1974 Je Tu IL Elle
1975 Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles
1976 News from Home
1978 Les Rendez-vous d'Anna
1982 Dis-moi
1982 Toute une nuit
1983 Les années 80
1983 Un jour Pina a demandé
1983 L'homme à la valise
1984 J'ai faim, j'ai froid (in Paris vu par... vingt ans après)
1984 New York, New York bis
Family Business: Chantal Akerman Speaks About Film
1984 Lettre d'un cinéaste
1986 Golden Eighties
1986 Portrait d'une paresseuse
1986 Letters Home
1986 Rue Mallet-Stevens
1989 Histoires d'Amérique
1989 Les trois dernières sonates de Franz Schubert
1989 Trois strophes sur le nom de Paul Sacher
1991 Nuit et jour
1992 Le déménagement
1992 Contre l'oubli (one segment)
1993 D'Est
1993 Portrait d'une jeune fille de la fin des années 60 à Bruxelles
1996 Un divan à New York
1996 Chantal Akerman par Chantal Akerman
1999 Sud
1999 La Captive
2002 De l'autre côté
2009 Avec Sonia Wieder-Atherton
2004 Demain on déménage
2006 Là-bas
2007 Tombée de nuit sur Shangaï
2011 La Folie Almayer
2015 No home movie

選映一(睡房,蒙特利旅館,8月15日)
Program 1 (La Chambre, Hotel Monterey, Le 15/8)

27/1 (Wed) 8:00pm | 購票 Ticketing


*嘉賓 Mary Stephen 將出席映後討論。
*Post-Screening Discussion with Ms. Mary Stephen.


睡房 La Chambre

比利時|1972|11分鐘|彩色| DCP
無對白
導演:桑堤艾格曼
兩個360°移動鏡頭,描述了房間裏一連串定格般的生活:一把椅子、一張放了水果的桌子,以及無盡的孤獨與等待。一位年輕女子坐在床上,艾格曼利用擺動的鏡頭,重新去塑造這個正在吃蘋果的年輕女子。

Belgium|1972|11 min|Color| DCP
No dialogues
Director: Chantal Akerman
Two 360° travelling shots describe the space of a room as a succession of still lives: a chair, some fruit on a table, endless solitary and waiting. A young women sitting on a bed, with the tracking shot, so as to reverse its movement and reframe the young woman who is eating an apple.

蒙特利旅館 Hotel Monterey

比利時|1972|65分鐘|彩色| DCP
無對白
導演:桑堤艾格曼
從酒店大堂,至天台頂層的一個全景,零碎地描述了一所高價酒店。艾格曼的定鏡直接將酒店入口、走廊及電梯內的空間攝入鏡頭內。 而最後的一個移動長鏡頭將所有風景一概盡收眼底,所有高樓建築仿如與天相連,形成一個深刻的畫面。

Belgium|1972|65 min|Color| DCP
No dialogues
Director: Chantal Akerman
A fragmentary description of a well-fare hotel, from the lobby to the urban panorama of the top storey, Akerman's static camera seizes upon the head-on format to frame the entrance, certain corridor, the interior of the lift to frame. The last long tracking shot which sweeps across a landscape where the tops of the buildings meet the sky was truly impressive.

8月15日 Le 15/8

比利時|1973|42分鐘|黑白| DCP
法語對白,英文字幕
導演:桑堤艾格曼
八月十五日,一個陽光明媚的日子,一位年輕女子在寧靜的公寓裏展開連場的獨角戲,她一個人說話、思考,自省。攝影機游走房間不同角落,記下她的一舉一動、記下這個空間、記下這天的光與影。

Belgium|1973|42 min|Black & White| DCP
In French with English Subtitle
Director: Chantal Akerman
Mid-August in Paris in a sunny, quiet apartment a young woman talks, thinks, reflects about herself, everyday life and little events in a long, uninterrupted monologue. The camera pictures her and her gestures in long, fixed shots moving around the rooms, the space, the light and shadows of a summer day.

選映二(毀掉我城,家鄉的消息)
Program 2 (Saute ma ville, News from Home)

28/1 (Thur) 7:30pm | 購票 Ticketing



毀掉我城 Saute ma ville

比利時|1968|13分鐘|黑白| DCP
無對白
導演:桑堤艾格曼
在郊區一座灰色建築裏,一位年輕女人回到家裏清潔廚房、進餐、飲紅酒。緩緩地,所有事情在瞬間竟爆發成災難。而她,由此至終,一直在幽幽哼唱着。

Belgium|1968|13min|Black & White| DCP
No dialogues
Director: Chantal Akerman
In a suburban landscape of grey buildings, a young woman goes home. She cleans the kitchen, eats, drinks wine. Slowly, everything explodes in disaster. All along, she is humming.
(Restored by the Cinémathèque royale de Belgique in its own laboratory, from the original 35mm negative. )

家鄉的消息 News from Home

比利時、法國|1976|90分鐘|彩色| DCP
英文對白,無字幕
導演:桑堤艾格曼
《家鄉的消息》就像一個時間囊一樣,藏着1970年代美國曼哈頓的面貌。映着這個鬼城般的城市,配上艾格曼的讀白,這部電影讓人沉思城市的鄉異之緒,以及個人與家鄉的疏離之感。

Belgium, France|1976|90 min|Color| DCP
In English without subtitles
Director: Chantal Akerman
The news from home is like a time capsule storing the pictures of Manhattan in the 1970s. With the images of this urban ghost-town and Akerman’s recitation this film brings you to the meditation on urban alienation and personal and familial disconnection.

選映三(我你他她)
Program 3 (Je Tu IL Elle)

30/1 (Sat) 9:30pm | 購票 Ticketing



我你他她 Je Tu IL Elle

比利時、法國|1974|90分鐘|黑白| DCP
法語對白,英文字幕
導演:桑堤艾格曼
我:一個年青女人獨個兒在房間內移動著家具。
你:一邊寫信,一邊用匙舀吃著砂糖。日子過去,累積著一封封信件。
他:她在晚上與卡車司機到酒吧,司機與她聊著他的私生活。
她:她來到她情人的公寓。飯後,兩人做了愛,第二天早晨,她沒說一聲離開了公寓。
不論是我、你、他或她,遠或近,陌生還是親密,彷彿都是一場又一場的惘然,找不到去路。

Belgium, France|1974|90 min|Black & White| DCP
In French with English Subtitle
Director: Chantal Akerman
I: a young woman herself moving furniture in the room.
You: Writing, while eating sugar. Years go by, accumulating letters of letters.
He: She went to a bar with a truck driver, chatting with her his private life.
She: She came to her lover's apartment. After dinner, they made love, the next morning, she left without saying a word.
Whether I, you, he, or she, far or close, apparent or imitate, as if a series of maze, where we all fail to find the exit.

《主婦日誌》於第四十屆香港國際電影節中放映
"JEANNE DIELMAN, 23 quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles" to be screened at the 40th Hong Kong International Film Festival
獨立焦點﹕桑堤艾格曼環節贊助:比利時領事館
Indie Focus: Chantal Akerman program's sponsor: Consulate General of Belgium